“Cod population changed in response to intensified fishing”

“New research by scientists at the University of Iceland’s Research Centre of the Westfjords and their colleagues has revealed that the trophic niche of the Atlantic cod in Icelandic coastal regions remained stable for centuries, but changed in the 19th century alongside intensified fishing. It is likely that this reflects changes to both the age and size of the cod stocks, but also changes to marine food webs as populations fall due to extensive fishing and food chains shorten. The research was reported in Scientific Reports, a respected journal from the publishers of Nature. According to the authors of the study, the results underline the importance of conserving different migratory cod in Icelandic coastal regions, for example to boost the population’s resilience to environmental changes.

The research team included Guðbjörg Ásta Ólafsdóttir, biologist and director of the UI Research Centre of the Westfjords, and Ragnar Edvardsson, archaeologist at the Research Centre, along with their colleagues in Canada and Norway. 

Guðbjörg Ásta and Ragnar have worked together for many years on interdisciplinary research into fish bones, particularly cod, that they have excavated from ancient fishing stations in the Westfjords. The oldest bones are 1000 years old.  “The main aim of the research is to understand how changes in fishing and the marine environment have affected fish populations over the centuries. Using a data series spanning several centuries, we can establish a kind of baseline and try to estimate how extensive human exploitation could have affected marine ecosystems,” explains Guðbjörg Ásta. “

Read the full article here and the scientific article here.

Student Proposal for Microbiology Final: Microalgae for Biofuel Production

Marine Microalgae for Biofuel Production: Implementation, Issues and Benefits
Author: Megan Lorino. May 25, 2019 

 Microalgae for use in biofuel production is a complex concept that is still being studied by the scientific community to find the best possible usage and means of production, both in cost and environmental sustainability. Algae contains twice as much protein as meat, can help end deforestation as it could replace soy protein in livestock feed, could improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gases, and can be used to clean industrial wastewater preventing harmful runoffs as it can even grow in polluted water (Medium, 2017). The technology and the biology needed to produce livestock feed made of microalgae exist, it’s just the process of developing an economically sustainable price-range for production.

Algae has been mentioned frequently in recent environmental news topics. It is often seen as environmentally toxic and damaging. It is important to understand the difference in microalgae species regarding those which do not produce harmful side effects [to the environment, wildlife, or humans] and those which may cause harmful algal blooms, such as the toxin-producing Ostreopsis (Gallitelli, Unagro, Addante, 2005), which is less than one percent of all algal blooms (NOAA, 2018) . The potential use of non-harmful algae in biofuel production comes with many challenges, but there is quite a bit of research that proves it could be a worthwhile change in comparison to fossil fuel usage. One major concern is that algae will never be able to meet the increasing demand for liquid fuel in the United States (Dietz, 2017). The greatest challenge we still face is finding a renewable energy source and create an industry that will operate sustainably, and can also be cost competitive with existing energy sources (Hannon, Gimpel, Tran, Rasala, Mayfield, 2010).

An article from the Environmental and Energy Study Institute laid out the concept of algal farms adjoining the sea. They stated that marine microalgae could be grown in areas that avoid land competition, and the use of freshwater would not be required in the growth of marine microalgae, which is an expensive source that is becoming more scarce (Dietz, 2017). Algae is a renewable energy source that is an eco-friendly alternative to fossil fuels. Researchers in Koana, Hawaii have demonstrated that algae uses photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide into vital oils and biomass, which then produces Omega-3 fatty acids, animal feed and biofuels. Chuck Greene of Cornell University developed a design which shows that algal farms could be used for more than just energy, but also for sustainable fish farming (Dietz, 2017).

Researchers have developed a process called Combined Algal Processing (CAP). This method hydrolyzes the carbohydrates to monomeric sugars by using sulfuric acid and elevated temperatures. These researchers have proposed that corn, cane, and cellulosic sugars can be substituted by these microalgal sugars (Pienkos, PhD., 2018). Dr. Martin Gross of Gross-Wen Technologies has developed an algal farming method that involves vertically oriented conveyor belts that slowly rotate into wastewater containing nitrogen and phosphorus, which the algae needs to grow. The conveyor belt method allows the algae to receive the water, CO2, and sunlight needed to grow as it passes in and out of the water (Hammerich, T., 2018). For any algae farm, water and nutrients must be available at lower costs and farm worker costs at reasonable rates in order to keep operation and production costs at a minimum (Clifford, n.d.).

The growing conditions and larger size of macroalgae makes them more difficult to cultivate in a controlled environment (Walker, 2013). Microalgae is not yet economically viable to produce on a larger scale as it is simply too expensive to switch the world’s livestock feed from the current soy-based feeds being used, to a feed using microalgae instead. Scientists are still working on ways to gradually implement a cost-effective method of producing animal feeds with microalgae (Medium, 2017). Open and closed pond designs are both possible, and offer variations in sizes, CO2 utilization, evaporation losses, cell density, energy consumption, among many others. Closed pond systems offer much better control and therefore higher productivity, but come at a much higher cost (Clifford, n.d.).

In 2005, Ocean Nutrition Canada was working on a project screening marine algae samples and discovered a single-celled microorganism producing triacylglycerol oil in substantial quantities in one of the samples – this oil is a base for biofuels (Brenhouse, 2010). Petroleum is derived from ancient algae deposits but is a limited resource which will either run out or become too expensive to continue using (Hannon, Gimpel, Tran, Rasala, Mayfield, 2010). Coal usage results in harmful waste in the environment, acid rain, disruption of wildlife, and aside from the dangerous effects, there are limited stocks of coal remaining and this source will soon be depleted (Fossil Fuel, 2019). Certain species of microalgae can be a suitable alternative for next generation biofuels due to their high amounts of oil and fast growth rate. Using modern technology, these oils can be extracted and refined into transportation fuels (Gouveia, Oliveira, 2009). Microalgae use far less water and do not displace food crop cultures, as mentioned from the Environmental and Energy Study Institute, algae farms would not need freshwater and would be placed along the sea. Marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis, proved to be a sustainable source of raw materials for biofuel production (Gouveia, Oliveira, 2009).



Medium. (2017). How algae could help solve some of the world’s biggest problems. https://medium.com/space10/how-algae-could-help-solve-some-of-the-worlds-biggest-problems-1fa7774a16b1

Dietz, E. (2017). Environmental and Energy Study Institute. Marine Microalgae: The Future of Sustainable Biofuel. https://www.eesi.org/articles/view/marine-microalgae-the-future-of-sustainable-biofuel

Hannon, M., Gimpel, J., Tran, M., Rasala, B., Mayfield, S. (2010). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Biofuels from algae: challenges and potential. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3152439/

Fossil Fuel. The Disadvantages of Coal. (2019). https://fossil-fuel.co.uk/coal/the-disadvantages-of-coal

Gouveia, L., Oliveira, A.C. (2009). SpringerLink. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. Microalgae as a raw material for biofuels production. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10295-008-0495-6

Gallitelli, M, MD., Unagro, N, BD., Addante, L.M. MD. (2005). Respiratory Illness as a Reaction to Tropical Algal Blooms Occurring in a Temperate Climate. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/200989

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2018). Are all algal blooms harmful? https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/habharm.html

Brenhouse, H. (2010). The New York Times. Canada Produces Strain of Algae for Fuel. https://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/30/business/energy-environment/30iht-renalg.html

Walker, K. (2013). AZO CleanTech. What are Algae Farms? https://www.azocleantech.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=448

Pienkos, P.T. PhD. (2018). R&D. New Algae Biofuel Production Method Could Someday Compete With Petroleum. https://www.rdmag.com/article/2018/06/new-algae-biofuel-production-method-could-someday-compete-petroleum

Hammerich, T. (2018). Medium. Future of Agriculture. Algae Farming. https://futureofag.com/algae-farming-f0fb3782d8ff

Clifford, C.B. (n.d.). Penn State College of Earth and Mineral Sciences. 10.4 Design of Algae Farms. https://www.e-education.psu.edu/egee439/node/695